A study was conducted to compare the response rate of telephone interview and Web Survey in Saudi Arabia utilizing Internet usage statistics, as well as experimental design. Official data shows that the reason that led the majority of Saudi people to choose not to interact with Web Survey similarly to the telephone interview is not technical due to the lack of Internet coverage, but rather cultural. Furthermore, the experimental part demonstrates three main findings. First, the response rate to the Web Survey is significantly lower than to the telephone interview. Second, Saudi males participated significantly more than females especially with the Web Survey though both had the same level of Internet access. Third, the average response rate of telephone interview is significantly above 95% for both genders, whereas the average response rate of the Web Survey is about 30%.
The creation of wealth is an important issue in any society, and entrepreneurship is regarded as an important catalyst in the creation of new wealth. This presents a challenge to develop entrepreneurship successfully. An important site for the development of entrepreneurship is higher education. The challenge however, is that there is a lack of a general understanding on how to educate students for entrepreneurship. In addition, current thought and practice on entrepreneurship education is historically biased, implying that graduates are essentially prepared for the past instead of for the future. From the perspective of higher education, the problem is how to develop current students to be entrepreneurial in the future. What is needed is to project into the future and then to develop an understanding of what should be taught as well as how it should be taught today. A versatile research technique that can assist in achieving this objective is the Delphi technique, as it is used to conduct futures research or research into areas where knowledge is incomplete. The Delphi method is a type of group interview, using the collective opinion of knowledgeable experts. The technique makes use of several rounds of data collection and feedback to create a consensus of opinion. Making use of the Delphi technique, research is being designed that will formulate expert‑based strategic guidelines on entrepreneurial education within the South African higher education sector. The aim of this paper is to illustrate the research design considerations that arise in the use of the Delphi technique for this purpose and how they are addressed. The main characteristics of the Delphi are presented and arguments for the use of the Delphi within a constructivist paradigm are discussed. Practical issues related to the design of the Delphi, panel‑member selection, and the formulation of panel questions, are examined. In illustrating these design considerations, the paper demonstrates a pragmatic approach to research design as well as the importance of creating coherence between the research question, the research paradigm, the research method and its use, encouraging research practitioners to adopt a more systematic, deliberate and philosophically‑based approach to research design.
Keywords: entrepreneurship, Delphi technique, higher education, entrepreneurial education, innovation, research design
Undertaking a Structured Literature Review or Structuring a Literature Review: Tales from the Field pp141‑152
The diversity of sources of literature within the management disciplines has resulted in a growing need for a systematic methodology to map the territory of its associated theories and models. As such, when scoping out a doctoral or policy based study the Structured Literature Review (SLR) as espoused by Tranfield et al (2003) can be considered as a means by which critical literature central to and underpinning the research can be rigorously and systematically mapped out. However, there is little guidance, or evidence, of this being the case when undertaking small scale projects for example undergraduate or masters degree dissertations. This paper reports four case studies using semi‑structured interviews of master's degree students following management programmes who undertook a Structured Literature Review (SLR) based dissertation and the issues and problems they had to encounter during their journey. The findings from the case studies suggest that Tranfield et al's (2003) approach to SLR's, whilst suited to doctoral level and policy based research is not appropriate when dealing with undergraduate and masters dissertations and projects. The case study findings identified that these students conducting a SLR had to deal with a new set of conceptual, methodological and data collection problems relating to this 'unorthodox' approach to conducting a postgraduate research dissertation. The findings show that students had to confront new paradigms of enquiry that are not normally taught or found in 'traditional' research texts and research methods courses that are taught on degree programmes. However, the findings do reveal that students gained a greater depth and insight into the subject they were researching through a more rigorous and structured approach. The paper then presents alternative remedies by way of the Rapid Structured Literature Review (RSLR) research strategy which is argued as an appropriate approach in conducting small scale literature based research projects when used with undergraduate and master's degree students rather than the SLR espoused by Tranfield et al (2003) which is better suited for other types of research such as doctoral and policy based activities.
Keywords: Literature-based research, systematic literature reviews, synthesis, rapid structured literature reviews
Tales of an Immersed Researcher: Dealing with an Intimate Experience of Practice, New Perspectives on the Politics of Regulatory Change and Communication pp153‑160
Both Governmentality and accounts of collaborative ethnographic study are well served by the academic literature. However, this discussion focuses upon discourses that circulate around the debate of meat hygiene practice and how it mediates through implementing organizational and regulatory change. This study subtly illuminates the differing expectations and gaze of the researcher and sponsor relationship. It sketches the degrees of control for both, as each search for insights into existing practice, exposing challenging attitudes and communicating the need for change within a watchful public realm. Finally, it also traces how the research objectives evolved from challenges to organizational change to notions of 'Communities of Practice' (Lave and Wenger, 1991).
Keywords: collaborative ethnographic study, communication, communities of practice, selectivity, governmentality
This paper aims to provide an example for developing a measurement scale by using car rental services as a case. To do so, both qualitative and quantitative methods are utilized in three fundamental stages recommended by Churchill (1979) and Parasuraman, Zeithaml & Berry (1988). In following their footsteps, the first qualitative research was undertaken in the form of 23 in‑depth interviews which produced 61 items that described user perceptions. Then, a quantitative study was undertaken to purify the scale items, examine dimensionality, reliability, factor structure and validity. After a rigorous statistical analysis an 18‑itemed scale with six factors emerged. The paper also introduces the setting of the research and presents need for scale development briefly which is followed by discussion, implications and limitations.
Keywords: Scale development, measurement, fundamental stages, value of fit measures, models, car rental services, North Cyprus
Building Knowledge — Developing a Grounded Theory of Knowledge Management for Construction pp175‑182
As part of an on‑going doctoral study, a constructivist approach to grounded theory is being used to develop an integrated model of knowledge management (KM) for the leading Irish construction organisations. Using multiple data collection methods; employees in a number of these organisations have participated, from recent graduates through to senior managers. While the need to effectively manage knowledge within large construction organisations is well recognised, a gap exists between the theory of KM and its implementation in practice. This paper considers the research in terms of its philosophical position, the use of grounded theory and the research methods utilised, from theoretical and practical perspectives. Progress in the study thus far is presented and future directions considered in achieving theoretical saturation and a well developed model. It is anticipated that the study will contribute to the field of construction management where further empirical research into KM is required. Much previous research in the area of KM in construction has focussed solely on technological, cultural or strategic issues in the development of KM models. The developed integrated model will form the basis of education and guidance resources on KM for the leading Irish construction organisations. As a traditional and pragmatic industry, the rationale for using grounded theory is provided from the viewpoint that it requires researchers to focus upon developing theory which produces explanations that are recognisable to the subjects of the research. In order to ensure the credibility of the developed model, it will be evaluated by industry as part of a pilot KM education programme, with further refinement if necessary.
This paper provides suggestions of doing a grounded theory business research. The main intention is to provide guidelines and suggestions for novice researchers, students and their supervisors in conducting a grounded theory business research. The main discussion of this paper will focus on the principles driving a grounded theory research, the choice between the two versions of grounded theory, the research problem, the purpose of the study, the research questions, and the place of literature review in a grounded theory study. In addition, an example of how a grounded theory was induced from data is illustrated. Its purpose is to illustrate how the procedures of data analysis, theoretical memoing and theoretical sampling were used to progressively to generate a grounded theory. In conclusion, the specific skills required by the researchers attempting a grounded theory study are suggested.
Researchers performing literature searches are increasingly using bibliographic databases as their initial and dominant resource. While the increasing number, volume and ease of access to academic and other databases potentially speeds searching, researchers require a rapidly evolving set of skills to do this efficiently. Current literature on this topic and research organisations developing techniques in this area are discussed. Aspects to be considered when designing search filters to extract relevant literature are also detailed. Further method development by the author performed during a systematic literature search on the topic of Barriers and constraints for women leaders is additionally examined.
Keywords: search filter, literature review, meta-analysis, database, Boolean algebra, women, leadership, social research
Using Plenary Focus Groups in Information Systems Research: More than a Collection of Interviews pp209‑216
Qualitative techniques for the collection of empirical materials are classically identified as including interviews and observations. However a further technique has more recently emerged known as the group interview or focus group, which may be applicable only to certain types of research situation but is widely overlooked and can add a level of knowledge and richness not available through other techniques. This paper follows the growth of focus group research, looks for situations in Information Systems research where this technique gives unique insights, and describes the conduct and application of the technique in a case study setting. An example of a useful structuring technique is described and conclusions are drawn concerning a particular type of focus group in information systems qualitative research which may well be useful in other research scenarios.